A chronology of Tudor Treaties and Oaths
25th December 1483
Henry Tudor Marriage Promise
Henry Tudor swore an oath in Reims Cathedral that when he succeeded in taking the English throne from Richard III he would marry Edward IV’s eldest daughter, Elizabeth of York.
27th March 1489
Treaty of Medina del Campo
This treaty between England and Spain agreed that Prince Arthur would marry Catherine of Aragon when they were both of age to marry. Catherine’s dowry would be 200,000 crowns.
21st December 1491
Truce of Coldstream
Henry agreed a peace treaty with James IV of Scotland. He wanted the treaty to last for five years but James would only agree to one year.
Peace with Scotland
Henry negotiated an extension of the peace with Scotland for a further two years.
3rd November 1492
Treaty of Etaples
This peace treaty between England and France was negotiated by Richard Foxe. It provided for a peace which would last until one year after the death of the King that lived longest. Each King agreed not to give assistance to the other’s enemies. All English property in France, apart from Calais, was to be returned to France. Henry VII would be paid an annual pension from France.
8th March 1493
England and Spain
This was a follow-up treaty to the Treaty of Medina del Campo 1489 and provided that Catherine of Aragon would come to England in 1498 when when she was 12 years old.
24th February 1496
This was a treaty between England and the Netherlands. It was negotiated by Richard Foxe and provided for a renewal of trade between the two countries. Customs duties were also agreed. A clause was added to the treaty which stated that neither country was to aid the other’s rebels. Under this clause it was agreed that if Margaret of Burgundy continued to give aid to Henry’s enemies (namely Perkin Warbeck) then Philip of Burgundy would take action.
Holy League of Venice
England joined the Holy League of Venice. The League of Venice had been set up in March 1495 in response to the French invasion of the Italian States. The League united the Papal States, Venice, Naples, Spain, Milan, the Holy Roman Empire, Florence, Mantua and now England against France.
Marriage Treaty Offered to Scotland
Henry did not want war with Scotland but he also wanted James IV to withdraw his support from Perkin Warbeck. He therefore offered the Scottish King the hand of his daughter, Margaret.
1st October 1496
Prince Arthur Marriage Treaty
A new treaty was drawn up for the marriage of Prince Arthur to Catherine of Aragon.
England and France
A commercial treaty was agreed between England and France.
7th July 1497
England Netherlands Trade Treaty
Terms were agreed for a partial reinstatement of trade between England and the Netherlands. A conference, to be held at Bruges, was planned for April 1498.
18th July 1497
Treaty of Medina del Campo
Terms for the marriage of Catherine of Aragon and Prince Arthur were now set out in detail. Catherine would come to England in 1500 when Arthur was 14 years old. Her dowry of 200,000 crowns would be paid in two instalments.
30th September 1497
Treaty of Ayton
A truce was declared between England and Scotland and it was agreed that the truce should last for 7 years. Negotiations for a marriage between James IV and Princess Margaret were re-opened.
This conference was held between England and the German states to discuss the Treaty of Utrecht that had been signed in 1474. The 1474 treaty had been interpreted in such a way as to give the merchants of Venice and the Hansa privileges in England. Henry VII was not happy about this and urged the Germans to accept his interpretation of the treaty.
The trade conference between the Netherlands and England, planned in 1497 to discuss a renewal of trade between the countries went ahead but accomplished little.
England and Netherlands Trade
The English Merchant Adventurers were granted a trade monopoly with the Netherlands.
Margaret of Burgundy Apology
Margaret of Burgundy sent an official apology to Henry VII for supporting Perkin Warbeck.
England and Burgundy
A conference held at Calais between Henry VII and Philip of Burgundy settled some of the differences that had arisen following the breakdown of Magnus Intercursus (1496).
Scottish Marriage Alliance
A treaty was concluded with Scotland. It provided for peace between the two countries to last for the lifetime of both Kings. It was to be sealed with the marriage of Princess Margaret to James IV of Scotland.
10th July 1499
England and Spain Alliance
This treaty of alliance was signed by England and Spain. It was an accompaniment to the marriage of Prince Arthur and Catherine of Aragon.
9th June 1500
Henry VII and Philip of Burgundy
Henry VII sailed to Calais for a meeting with Philip of Burgundy. He hoped to convince Philip that England was at peace and that the accession of the Tudor dynasty had settled the differences between the Lancastrians and Yorkists.
28th November 1501
As per the terms of the marriage treaty, Ferdinand and Isabella paid the first instalment of Catherine’s dowry, 100,000 crowns.
24th January 1502
Treaty of Perpetual Peace
This treaty between England and Scotland provided that each King would put an end to the border disputes and would not make war on each other or assist each other’s enemies. A Perpetual peace was to last for the lifetime of each king and their legitimate heirs and successors. The allies of each country were to be given the opportunity to be included in the treaty. The treaty would be sealed with the marriage of Princess Margaret to King James of Scotland.
19th June 1502
Treaty of Aachen
Henry VII agreed a treaty with Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian. Henry promised to give Maximilian 10,000 crowns towards his war with Turkey and Maximilian agreed to stop giving refuge to Henry’s enemies, notably Edmund de la Pole.
Marriage negotiations for Prince Henry and Catherine of Aragon
Having learned that her daughter was still a virgin, Isabella of Spain instructed Catherine’s confessor, de Puebla, that a marriage between Catherine and Prince Henry would be in the best interests of Spain.
23rd June 1503
Marriage Treaty Prince Henry and Catherine of Aragon
Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain had not been in favour of their daughter marrying Henry VII and had pressed for her to be married to Prince Henry instead. This new treaty declared that, subject to the necessary dispensation being obtained from the Pope, the marriage would go ahead in two years when Prince Henry reached the age of fourteen. In addition to the dowry payment already made, Ferdinand and Isabella agreed to pay a further 100,000 crowns. Catherine was to give up all claims to the first dowry payment and also to her widow’s pension on the understanding that once married she would receive an equivalent revenue.
Prince Henry and Catherine of Aragon marriage treaty
Henry VII ratified the treaty for the marriage of Prince Henry to Catherine of Aragon. However, he continued to delay the actual marriage ceremony. Many clerics including the Archbishop of Canterbury objected to the marriage and doubted that the Pope had the power to grant the dispensation.
Harvard Reference for this page:
Heather Y Wheeler. (2017). Tudor Treaties and Oaths Chronology Available: https://www.tudornation.com/tudor-treaties-and-oaths-chronology Last accessed February 18th, 2020